How do we classify chromosomes?
On the basis of the location of the centromere, chromosomes are classified into four types: metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric, and telocentric. As previously mentioned, the centromere is easily visualized as the most constricted region of a condensed mitotic chromosome.
What are the 3 ways to classify a chromosome?
In a given species, chromosomes can be identified by their number, size, centromere position, and banding pattern. In a human karyotype, autosomes or “body chromosomes” (all of the non–sex chromosomes) are generally organized in approximate order of size from largest (chromosome 1) to smallest (chromosome 22).
What are the two classes of chromosomes?
There are four main types of chromosomes: metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric, and telocentric. Chromosomes are found within the nucleus of most living cells and consist of DNA that is tightly wound into thread-like structures.
What is the main function of chromosome?
The most important function of chromosomes is to carry the basic genetic material – DNA. DNA provides genetic information for various cellular functions. These functions are essential for growth, survival, and reproduction of the organisms. Histones and other proteins cover the Chromosomes.
Which disorder is caused by an extra chromosome?
A trisomy is a chromosomal condition characterised by an additional chromosome. A person with a trisomy has 47 chromosomes instead of 46. Down syndrome, Edward syndrome and Patau syndrome are the most common forms of trisomy.
Which chromosomes do females have?
In humans, females inherit an X chromosome from each parent, whereas males always inherit their X chromosome from their mother and their Y chromosome from their father.
Do humans have acrocentric chromosomes?
In humans, chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22 are acrocentric, and all of these chromosomes are associated with Robertsonian translocations. The short arms of all of the acrocentric chromosomes contain numerous copies of the genes coding for ribosomal RNA.