The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is a principle stating that the genetic variation in a population will remain constant from one generation to the next in the absence of disturbing factors. … For instance, mutations disrupt the equilibrium of allele frequencies by introducing new alleles into a population.

## How do you know if it’s in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

To know if a population is in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium scientists **have to observe at least two generations**. If the allele frequencies are the same for both generations then the population is in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

## What changes the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can be disturbed by a number of forces, including **mutations, natural selection, nonrandom mating, genetic drift, and gene flow**. … Gene flow, which occurs when breeding between two populations transfers new alleles into a population, can also alter the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

## Why is there a 2 in 2pq?

The term p2 represents **the frequency of dominant homozygotes (AA)** and the term q2 represents the frequency of recessive homozygotes (aa). p represents the allele frequency of allele A, and q represents the allele frequency of the allele a.

## Which is most likely to occur in a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

The answer to your question is, **Random mating**.

## Does inbreeding violate Hardy-Weinberg?

Inbreeding – How does it affect a population? In a small population, the sampling of gametes and fertilization to create zygotes causes **random error** in allele frequencies. This results in a deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. This deviation is larger at small sample sizes and smaller at large sample sizes.

## What will happen to the frequency of the heterozygotes if a population is in equilibrium?

if the allele frequencies in a population with two alleles at a locus are p and q, then the expected **genotype frequencies are p ^{2}, 2pq, and q^{2}**. This frequency distribution will not change from generation to generation once a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

## Why is Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium considered a null hypothesis?

The Chi-Square test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes the “null hypothesis” – that is, the **observed genotype frequencies are not significantly different from those predicted for a population in equilibrium**. … This means that one may expect a Chi-Square of this value to occur by chance in 5% of genotype comparisons.