What does it mean to say that two chromosomes are homologous?
The two chromosomes in a homologous pair are very similar to one another and have the same size and shape. Most importantly, they carry the same type of genetic information: that is, they have the same genes in the same locations. However, they don’t necessarily have the same versions of genes.
Is the following sentence true or false the diploid cell that enters meiosis becomes 4 haploid cells at the end of meiosis?
Meiosis is a process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell. Meiosis usually involves two distinct divisions, called meiosis I and meiosis II. By the end of meiosis II, the diploid cell becomes four haploid cells.
What are the two distinct divisions of meiosis?
Meiosis is divided into two parts: meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, each chromosome in a cell is replicated to yield duplicated sister chromatides for each member of the homologous chromosomes.
What is the same in all parts of homologous chromosomes?
Homologous chromosomes are similiar but not identical. Each carries the same genes in the same order, but the alleles for each trait may not be the same. … The maternal and paternal chromosomes in a homologous pair have the same genes at the same loci, but possibly different alleles.
What does it mean if a cell is diploid?
Diploid describes a cell that contain two copies of each chromosome. … The only exception is cells in the germ line, which go on to produce gametes, or egg and sperm cells. Germ line cells are haploid, which means they contain a single set of chromosomes.
Is a haploid or diploid?
Haploid is the quality of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes. Organisms that reproduce asexually are haploid. Sexually reproducing organisms are diploid (having two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent). In humans, only their egg and sperm cells are haploid.
Why is crossing over important?
This process, also known as crossing over, creates gametes that contain new combinations of genes, which helps maximize the genetic diversity of any offspring that result from the eventual union of two gametes during sexual reproduction.
What is the difference between meiosis 1 and meiosis 2?
There are two divisions in meiosis; the first division is meiosis I: the number of cells is doubled but the number of chromosomes is not. This results in 1/2 as many chromosomes per cell. The second division is meiosis II: this division is like mitosis; the number of chromosomes does not get reduced.
What is the main difference between Chromatin and chromosomes?
Chromatin is a complex formed by histones packaging the DNA double helix. Chromosomes are structures of proteins and nucleic acids found in the living cells and carry genetic material. Chromatin is composed of nucleosomes. Chromosomes are composed of condensed chromatin fibers.
Do all cells have homologous chromosomes?
All cells have homologous chromosomes except for the reproductive cells of higher organisms. Cells with homologous chromosomes are diploid. Reproductive cells, called gametes, are different. They contain only half the full number of chromosomes—one chromosome from each pair.