A translocation occurs when a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This type of rearrangement is described as balanced if no genetic material is gained or lost in the cell. If there is a gain or loss of genetic material, the translocation is described as unbalanced . Deletions.
What does chromosome translocation cause?
A translocation is a type of abnormal change in the structure of a chromosome that occurs when a part of one chromosome breaks off and sticks to another chromosome. These “mutations” are an important cause of many types of lymphomas and leukemias.
How does translocation affect gene expression?
Translocations are known to affect the expression of genes at the breakpoints and, in the case of unbalanced translocations, alter the gene copy number.
What are the two types of translocation?
There are two main types of translocations: reciprocal and Robertsonian. In a reciprocal translocation, two different chromosomes have exchanged segments with each other. In a Robertsonian translocation, an entire chromosome attaches to another at the centromere.
How do you know if translocation is balanced?
Most individuals with balanced translocation suffer no ill effects and are often undiagnosed until they suffer from problems with infertility. Balanced translocation errors are diagnosed through karyotyping. Blood samples are collected from each parent and analyzed for translocation.
What do you mean by translocation?
(TRANZ-loh-KAY-shun) A genetic change in which a piece of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. Sometimes pieces from two different chromosomes will trade places with each other.
How common is chromosomal translocation?
Chromosomal translocations refer to exchange of chromosomal segments between chromosomes. Translocations are the most common type of structural chromosomal abnormalities seen in the general population, having a frequency of about 1/1000 live births.
How does translocation affect a protein?
Protein translocation is a process by which proteins move between cellular compartments. Short amino-acid sequences within a protein, known as signal peptides or signal sequences, can direct its localisation, although translocation also occurs in the absence of these signal sequences.