Chromatin regulators modulate various DNA-templated processes, such as DNA replication, DNA recombination, gene transcription, DNA damage repair. Dysfunction of the chromatin regulators in human cells results in various human developmental defects and diseases.
What is chromatin regulation?
Chromatin is not an inert structure, but rather an instructive DNA scaffold that can respond to external cues to regulate the many uses of DNA. A principle component of chromatin that plays a key role in this regulation is the modification of histones.
What are chromatin modifiers?
In this context we will understand that chromatin modifiers are proteins that add (“write”), interpret (“read”) and/or remove (“erase”) histone modifications. The genome-wide view histone modifications and chromatin modifiers locations will widen our perspective on the impact of the histone code in health and disease.
How does chromatin regulate gene expression?
In eukaryotes, the tight or loose packaging of the genes in chromatin (DNA plus specific proteins) can control whether the genes can be expressed to form their encoded product. DNA itself can be methylation and that also regulates gene expression, generally to turn off the gene. …
What are the three types of chromatin?
Euchromatin is the lightly packed form of chromatin, whereas heterochromatin refers to the condensed form. Euchromatin and heterochromatin are functionally and structurally distinct, and have key roles in the transcription and expression of genes.
What is the difference between chromatin and chromatid?
As mentioned above, chromatin is composed of DNA and histones that are packaged into thin, stringy fibers. The chromatin undergoes further condensation to form the chromosome. … A chromatid is either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome. Chromatids connected by a centromere are called sister chromatids.
What is open chromatin?
Open chromatin regions (OCRs) are nucleosome-depleted regions that can be bound by protein factors1 and can play various roles in DNA replication2, nuclear organization3, and gene transcription4. … The larval silk gland of these insects is a specialized organ that synthesizes, assembles, and secretes silk proteins.
What does chromatin look like?
Under the microscope in its extended form, chromatin looks like beads on a string. The beads are called nucleosomes. Each nucleosome is composed of DNA wrapped around eight proteins called histones.
How are histones regulated?
Histone expression is regulated by histone modifications. As described above, histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 positively regulates histone gene expression [6, 68]. Gcn5 is recruited to histone gene promoters by Spt21 and Spt10 to acetylate histones at core histone gene promoters .