How do chromosomes separate during mitosis?

The chromosomes are separated by a structure called the mitotic spindle. The mitotic spindle is made of many long proteins called microtubules, which are attached to a chromosome at one end and to the pole of a cell at the other end. The sister chromatids are separated simultaneously at their centromeres.

What keeps the chromosomes separate during mitosis?

After metaphase is complete, the cell enters anaphase. During anaphase, the microtubules attached to the kinetochores contract, which pulls the sister chromatids apart and toward opposite poles of the cell (Figure 3c). At this point, each chromatid is considered a separate chromosome.

How do chromosomes separate during meiosis?

In metaphase I, the tetrads line themselves up at the metaphase plate and homologous pairs orient themselves randomly. In anaphase I, centromeres break down and homologous chromosomes separate. In telophase I, chromosomes move to opposite poles; during cytokinesis the cell separates into two haploid cells.

Does separation of chromosomes occur in mitosis?

During mitosis we do not see separation of the homologous chromosomes. This is the reason that meiosis results in a reduction of ploidy and that mitosis does not. Separation of homologous chromosomes occurs after the formation of tetrads, during anaphase I of meiosis.

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How is chromosome separation different in meiosis and mitosis?

During meiosis I, chromosomes line up in homologous pairs in order for the cell to be reduced from diploid to haploid. … In mitosis, chromosomes separate only once. They line up end to end. This results in two identical, diploid cells.

What type of cells does mitosis produce?

Mitosis results in two identical daughter cells, whereas meiosis results in four sex cells.

How many chromosomes are in each daughter cell at the end of mitosis?

At the end of mitosis, the two daughter cells will be exact copies of the original cell. Each daughter cell will have 30 chromosomes. At the end of meiosis II, each cell (i.e., gamete) would have half the original number of chromosomes, that is, 15 chromosomes. 2.

What does it mean when two chromosomes are homologous?

The two chromosomes in a homologous pair are very similar to one another and have the same size and shape. Most importantly, they carry the same type of genetic information: that is, they have the same genes in the same locations.

Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis?

Why do chromosomes coil during mitosis? … E) The chromosomes are “reeled in” by the contraction of spindle microtubules, motor proteins of the kinetochores move the chromosomes along the spindle microtubules, and nonkinetochore spindle fibers serve to push chromosomes in the direction of the poles.

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