Such phenotypic plasticity in morphology or behavior has generally evolved as a response to varying environmental conditions and allows individuals or genotypes to adjust their phenotypes so that they can track the varying environmental optimum.
Under what conditions is phenotypic plasticity favored?
Since Bradshaw’s discussion, numerous models of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity indicate that plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments where different phenotypic optima are present across environments experienced either within the lifetime of an organism or across generations (for example, Berrigan …
Why is phenotypic plasticity important in plants?
Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of an individual organism to alter its physiology/morphology in response to changes in environmental conditions. This ability is particularly important in plants, whose sessile life-style requires them to deal with ambient conditions.
What is an example of phenotypic plasticity in humans?
5 Strategic Ejaculation in Response to Sperm-Competition Cues. Humans have been reported to exhibit phenotypic plasticity in sperm allocation depending on variation in socio-sexual situations.
Is phenotypic plasticity reversible?
Any change in behavior can be viewed as phenotypic plasticity (SIH 2004) and is very often reversible; but also morphological traits can be reversible, for ex- ample, in perch (OLSSON & EkLöV 2005) or Daphnia (FRANk 2005).
Is tanning phenotypic plasticity?
The genotype codes for a mechanism that is able to express different phenotypes (organs, behaviors) in response to detectable and recurring changes in the environment. Tanning is a case in point. … However, recent research in neuroscience, ecology and psychology has shown that phenotypic plasticity extends to behaviors.
Is phenotypic plasticity natural selection?
Main Text. Natural selection acts on phenotypes, yet evolution occurs at the level of genotypes. … This suggests that plasticity may largely impede adaptive evolution. However, it has been posited that plasticity may facilitate or even promote adaptation in certain contexts.
Can you still get phenotypic plasticity?
Last, phenotypic plasticity can remain hidden and unused for extensive periods of time.
How do you test phenotypic plasticity?
One way to quantify phenotypic plasticity is to use analysis of variance (ANOVA). The idea behind ANOVA is to take a variety of genotypes and a variety of environments and assess the resulting phenotype for each genotype-environment pair.
How is phenotypic plasticity measured?
A number of methods exist to quantify phenotypic plasticity with the use of various indices such as the trait mean, the trait variation coefficient, the trait reaction norm, and the trait extreme values and phenotypic distances .
Why is plant plasticity important?
Plasticity is important because it is an encompassing model to understand life on earth, it can increase fitness, generate novelity, and facilitate evolution, it structures ecological communities, and it has numerous practical applications. As such, all biologists should understand phenotypic plasticity.
What is phenotypic plasticity and why is it important?
Many organisms have the ability to express different phenotypes in response to environmental conditions. Such phenotypic plasticity allows individual organisms to develop appropriate morphological, physiological, or behavioral traits that better fit a particular environment that they encounter.
Can phenotypic plasticity lead to evolution?
For instance, although it is generally acknowledged that phenotypic plasticity can increase organism survival under specific conditions, there is no general agreement on whether plasticity can drive the evolution of novel traits and promote taxonomic diversity, or on whether it has more often the effect of accelerating …
Which of the following is a direct example of phenotypic plasticity?
1. Which of the following is a direct example of phenotypic plasticity? The same tree producing different size fruit in different years, depending on the weather. Selecting trees over multiple generations for a mutation that produces larger fruit.