Why does chromatin remodeling have to be the first step in gene activation?

Why does chromatin remodeling have to be the first step in gene activation? Eukaryotic DNA can be highly packaged in condensed chromatin and inaccessible to transcription factors and RNA polymerase. … The number of proteins that control transcription is much greater in eukaryotes.

Why does chromatin structure need to be modified to allow gene expression?

Chromatin structure plays a key role in regulating gene expression by allowing DNA accessibility to transcriptional machinery and transcription factors [12].

What is the purpose of chromatin remodeling enzymes?

Members of the ATP-dependent family of chromatin remodeling enzymes play key roles in the regulation of transcription, development, DNA repair and cell cycle.

What happens during chromatin remodeling in gene regulation?

Chromatin remodeling is the rearrangement of chromatin from a condensed state to a transcriptionally accessible state, allowing transcription factors or other DNA binding proteins to access DNA and control gene expression. … Chromatin remodeling is highly implicated in epigenetics.

What is the difference between chromatin and chromatid?

As mentioned above, chromatin is composed of DNA and histones that are packaged into thin, stringy fibers. The chromatin undergoes further condensation to form the chromosome. … A chromatid is either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome. Chromatids connected by a centromere are called sister chromatids.

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Does methylation increase gene expression?

Evidence suggests that DNA methylation of the gene body is associated with a higher level of gene expression in dividing cells (Hellman and Chess, 2007; Ball et al, 2009; Aran et al, 2011).

Is chromatin easy to read and copy or easy to move?

After an m-RNA message is transcribed from the DNA it is edited.

BEADLIKE STRUCTURE FORMED WHEN DNA WRAPS AROUND HISTONES.

CHROMATIN CHROMOSOMES
In dividing? OR non-dividing cells? IN NON-DIVIDING CELLS IN DIVIDING CELLS
Easy to read & copy? OR Easy to move? EASY TO READ & COPY EASY TO MOVE

Can Epigenetics be inherited?

Inherited epigenetic marks are important for embryogenesis

“It turned out that, in reproduction, epigenetic information is not only inherited from one generation to another but also important for the development of the embryo itself,” says Nicola Iovino.

What is the difference between methylation and acetylation?

Histone acetylation occurs at lysine residues and it increases gene expression in general. (B) Histone methylation: Methylation is catalyzed by histone methyltransferase. Histone demethylase reverses methylation. Methylation activates or represses gene expression depending on which residue is methylated.

How is chromatin remodeling determined?

Nucleosome mobilization by chromatin remodeling factors is easily detected by observing band disappearance in gel, which in turn provides evidence for histone octamer displacement.

Why is nucleosome remodeling necessary?

With the crucial role nucleosome remodeling complexes have in proper nervous system function, enhanceosomes may be as important in regulating the proper gene expression in processes from neural development to long-term memory formation.

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Is chromatin remodeling reversible?

Like all biochemical reactions they are, in principle, reversible and the outcome of remodeling reactions—be it the disruption of histone–DNA interactions or their formation, the sliding of a histone octamer on or off a particular DNA sequence, or alteration of the histone variant composition of a nucleosome—are …

Why is chromatin only found in eukaryotes?

Chromatin is only found in eukaryotic cells, with prokaryotic cells having a different arrangement of their genetic material called a genophore – a chromosome that doesn’t contain chromatin.

How does chromatin regulate gene expression?

In eukaryotes, the tight or loose packaging of the genes in chromatin (DNA plus specific proteins) can control whether the genes can be expressed to form their encoded product. DNA itself can be methylation and that also regulates gene expression, generally to turn off the gene. …

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