Since Bradshaw’s discussion, numerous models of the evolution of phenotypic plasticity indicate that plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments where different phenotypic optima are present across environments experienced either within the lifetime of an organism or across generations (for example, Berrigan …
What is phenotypic plasticity in evolution?
Phenotypic plasticity can be defined as ‘the ability of individual genotypes to produce different phenotypes when exposed to different environmental conditions‘ (Pigliucci et al. 2006). … As with any organismal trait, the way in which an individual responds to environmental influences is subject to evolutionary change.
What are examples of phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypes depending on the environment in which it resides. For example, genetically identical water flea (Daphnia) clones can differ in their morphology depending on whether reared in the absence or presence of a potential predator.
Are genotypic changes permanent?
Genotype generally remains constant from one environment to another, although occasional spontaneous mutations may occur which cause it to change. However, when the same genotype is subjected to different environments, it can produce a wide range of phenotypes.
What are three ways to study the evolution of phenotypic plasticity?
The evolution of plasticity is modeled in three ways: optimality models, quantitative genetic models, and gametic models.
Is phenotypic plasticity natural selection?
Main Text. Natural selection acts on phenotypes, yet evolution occurs at the level of genotypes. … This suggests that plasticity may largely impede adaptive evolution. However, it has been posited that plasticity may facilitate or even promote adaptation in certain contexts.
Why phenotypic plasticity is important?
Many organisms have the ability to express different phenotypes in response to environmental conditions. Such phenotypic plasticity allows individual organisms to develop appropriate morphological, physiological, or behavioral traits that better fit a particular environment that they encounter.
How do you test for phenotypic plasticity?
One way to quantify phenotypic plasticity is to use analysis of variance (ANOVA). The idea behind ANOVA is to take a variety of genotypes and a variety of environments and assess the resulting phenotype for each genotype-environment pair.
Is phenotypic plasticity reversible?
Any change in behavior can be viewed as phenotypic plasticity (SIH 2004) and is very often reversible; but also morphological traits can be reversible, for ex- ample, in perch (OLSSON & EkLöV 2005) or Daphnia (FRANk 2005).