Chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Nuclear DNA does not appear in free linear strands; it is highly condensed and wrapped around nuclear proteins in order to fit inside the nucleus. Chromatin exists in two forms.
What happens when DNA is condensed into chromosomes?
These nucleosomes coil and stack together to form fibers called chromatin. Chromatin, in turn, loops and folds with the help of additional proteins to form chromosomes. Condensing DNA into chromosomes prevents DNA tangling and damage during cell division.
What is it called when DNA condense into chromosomes?
This DNA-protein complex is called chromatin, wherein the mass of protein and nucleic acid is nearly equal. Within cells, chromatin usually folds into characteristic formations called chromosomes. … Chromatin condensation begins during prophase (2) and chromosomes become visible.
How much DNA is inside every cell’s nucleus?
The haploid human genome contains approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA packaged into 23 chromosomes. Of course, most cells in the body (except for female ova and male sperm) are diploid, with 23 pairs of chromosomes. That makes a total of 6 billion base pairs of DNA per cell.
Does DNA condense to form chromosomes?
Advanced life forms like eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus that houses genetic material (chromosomes) when the cell is growing normally. DNA condenses into chromosomes. When the time is right for the cell to divide, the nuclear membrane disassembles, and chromosomes are on the move.
Why is DNA condensed down into chromosomes prior to cell division?
During mitosis, the chromosomes condense so that each chromosome is a distinct unit. Prior to mitosis, the cell copies its DNA so that it contains two copies of each chromosome. … Condensing the DNA into tightly packed chromosomes makes the process of chromosome alignment and separation during mitosis more efficient.
Is chromatin made of DNA?
Chromatin is a complex of DNA and proteins that forms chromosomes within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each nucleosome is composed of DNA wrapped around eight proteins called histones. …