Each chromosome is made of a molecule of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and histone proteins. Its unique structure keeps the two DNA strands tightly wrapped around the histone proteins. So, DNA is packaged into a chromosome or a chromosome is a bundle of tightly-coiled DNA.
What are the structural composition of a chromosome strand?
Chromosomes are very long structures consisting of two DNA polymers, joined together by hydrogen bonds connecting complementary base pairs. A chromosome is divided into segments of double-stranded DNA called genes.
What are the 4 parts of a chromosome?
6 Main Parts of a Chromosome
- Part # 1. Pellicle and Matrix:
- Part # 2. Chromatids, Chromonema and Chromomeres:
- Part # 3. Centromeres (= Primary constriction):
- Part # 4. Secondary Constriction:
- Part # 5. Satellite:
- Part # 6. Telomere:
Which are the two main parts that make up a chromosome?
DNA is coiled around proteins called histones, which provide the structural support. Chromosomes help ensure that DNA is replicated and distributed appropriately during cell division. Each chromosome has a centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections – the p (short) arm and the q (long) arm.
What is the chemical composition of chromosomes Why are they important?
The major chemical components of the chromosome are DNA, RNA (nucleic acids), and proteins (histones and nonhistones). There is, in addition, calcium, which seems to be associated with the DNA (Barton, 1951, Mazia, 1954a). Calcium is important in binding sections of the chromosome together (Mazia, Steffensen, 1955).
What are the 24 chromosomes?
The autosomes are normally present in pairs. The sperm contributes one sex chromosome (X or Y) and 22 autosomes . The egg contributes one sex chromosome (X only) and 22 autosomes . Sometimes microarray is referred to as 24-chromosome microarray : 22 chromosomes, and X and Y are counted as one each, for a total of 24.
What is not a part of a chromosome?
RNA is not a part of the chromosomes. The DNA is transcribed into RNA though.