Introduction. In the interphase, eukaryote chromosomes are replicated and two identical copies of each chromosome, called sister chromatids, are present in the nucleus. In mitosis, chromosomes undergo a condensation into very compact, rod-like objects that have a high stiffness.
What is meant by chromosome condensation?
Definition. Chromosome condensation is the dramatic reorganisation of the long thin chromatin strands into compact short chromosomes that occurs in mitosis and meiosis.
What does chromatin condensation do?
Chromatin condensation is one of the vital processes occurring during spermatogenesis, in which most of sperm DNA histones are replaced by protamines to obtain a higher compaction and protection.
How does chromosome condensation work?
Chromosome condensation, the landmark event at the onset of prophase, often begins in isolated patches of chromatin at the nuclear periphery. Later, chromosome condense into two threads termed sister chromatids that are closely paired along their entire lengths.
Why do chromosomes condense?
Chromosomes condense before mitosis to allow them the ability to move smoothly, without becoming entangled and breaking. (So, they are conveniently packaged for cell division, in which the chromosomes must move to both poles of the cell.)
Why does chromatin condense during apoptosis?
Chromatin condensation during apoptosis appears to be due to a rapid proteolysis of nuclear matrix proteins which does not involve the p34cdc2 kinase.
Is chromosome condensation reversible?
In late anaphase and telophase the mitotic chromatin decondenses to re-establish its interphase structure (Figure 3). Decondensation is not a simple reversal of events leading to condensation.
What happens if chromosomes dont condense?
If they do not align correctly, they cannot move individually to opposite poles in the later phases of mitosis, and the result will be one cell with extra chromosomes and a daughter cell with missing chromosomes. These mutations can lead to harmful results such as cell death, organic disease or cancer.