Phenotypes can be caused by genes, environmental factors, or a combination of both. Phenotypic variation, then, is the variability in phenotypes that exists in a population. For example, people come in all shapes and sizes: height, weight, and body shape are phenotypes that vary.
What causes phenotypic plasticity?
Rather, phenotypic plasticity is a developmental process, and the reaction norms that we usually measure in the adult stage, or at reproductive maturity, are in fact the result of a positive feedback between environments and genes throughout the ontogeny of an organism (Schmalhausen, 1949; Smith-Gill, 1983; Pigliucci …
Is phenotypic plasticity reversible?
Any change in behavior can be viewed as phenotypic plasticity (SIH 2004) and is very often reversible; but also morphological traits can be reversible, for ex- ample, in perch (OLSSON & EkLöV 2005) or Daphnia (FRANk 2005).
How do you find phenotypic variation?
Variance Components of a Quantitative Trait
- VP = VG + VE + VGE VP = total phenotypic variation of the segregating population. …
- VG = VA + VD + VI and the total phenotypic variance can be rewritten as.
- VP = VA + VD + VI + VE + VGE …
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What is the difference between phenotypic and genotypic variation?
Variation, in biology, any difference between cells, individual organisms, or groups of organisms of any species caused either by genetic differences (genotypic variation) or by the effect of environmental factors on the expression of the genetic potentials (phenotypic variation).
What causes variation within a population?
For a given population, there are three sources of variation: mutation, recombination, and immigration of genes. However, recombination by itself does not produce variation unless alleles are segregating already at different loci; otherwise there is nothing to recombine.
Is phenotypic plasticity natural selection?
Main Text. Natural selection acts on phenotypes, yet evolution occurs at the level of genotypes. … This suggests that plasticity may largely impede adaptive evolution. However, it has been posited that plasticity may facilitate or even promote adaptation in certain contexts.
Is tanning phenotypic plasticity?
The genotype codes for a mechanism that is able to express different phenotypes (organs, behaviors) in response to detectable and recurring changes in the environment. Tanning is a case in point. … However, recent research in neuroscience, ecology and psychology has shown that phenotypic plasticity extends to behaviors.
What are examples of phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypes depending on the environment in which it resides. For example, genetically identical water flea (Daphnia) clones can differ in their morphology depending on whether reared in the absence or presence of a potential predator.
How do you test phenotypic plasticity?
One way to quantify phenotypic plasticity is to use analysis of variance (ANOVA). The idea behind ANOVA is to take a variety of genotypes and a variety of environments and assess the resulting phenotype for each genotype-environment pair.
Can you still get phenotypic plasticity?
Last, phenotypic plasticity can remain hidden and unused for extensive periods of time.