Freshwater snails (Physa virgata), provide an example of when phenotypic plasticity can be either adaptive or maladaptive. In the presence of a predator, bluegill sunfish, these snails make their shell shape more rotund and reduce growth. This makes them more crush-resistant and better protected from predation.
What is an example of adaptive plasticity?
These are all examples of developmental plasticity: the capacity of the same genotype to produce different phenotypic outcomes depending upon inputs during development . For the crickets responding to spiders and the bulb mites developing the aggressive phenotype, the plasticity may plausibly be adaptive.
What are some examples of phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypic plasticity refers to the ability of a genotype to express different phenotypes depending on the environment in which it resides. For example, genetically identical water flea (Daphnia) clones can differ in their morphology depending on whether reared in the absence or presence of a potential predator.
What is adaptive phenotypic plasticity?
By contrast, adaptive phenotypic plasticity allows individuals to maintain an adaptive fit between phenotype and environment: plastic individuals produce only high fitness phenotypes by responding appropriately to environmental cues.
When can you say that phenotypic plasticity is adaptive?
Adaptive plasticity evolves when the environmental cues are reliable and environments vary frequently, i.e. selection for plasticity is strong. Fixed genetically determined traits (environmental phenotypic canalization) evolve and may be selected for, if environments vary rarely or unpredictably .
What is an adaptive trait?
Abstract. A trait is an aspect of the whole or of a certain portion of the developmental pattern of the organism. An adaptive trait is, then, an aspect of the developmental pattern which facilitates the survival and/or reproduction of its carrier in a certain succession of environments.
Is plasticity always adaptive?
1) Plasticity is—not surprisingly—sometimes adaptive, sometimes maladaptive, and sometimes neutral. … 4) Plasticity sometimes aids colonization of new environments (Baldwin Effect) and responses to in situ environmental change. However, plastic responses are not always necessary or sufficient in these contexts.
What is phenotypic plasticity and why is it important?
Many organisms have the ability to express different phenotypes in response to environmental conditions. Such phenotypic plasticity allows individual organisms to develop appropriate morphological, physiological, or behavioral traits that better fit a particular environment that they encounter.
How do you determine phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypic plasticity has been defined as a change in the phenotype expressed by a single genotype in different environments. Bradshaw  recognized that phenotypic plasticity could itself be under genetic control and therefore subjected to selective pressure.
Is phenotypic plasticity natural selection?
Main Text. Natural selection acts on phenotypes, yet evolution occurs at the level of genotypes. … This suggests that plasticity may largely impede adaptive evolution. However, it has been posited that plasticity may facilitate or even promote adaptation in certain contexts.
What is phenotypic adaptation give example?
Phenotypic adaptations refer to changes in the appearance of organisms as a result of genetic mutation. Evolution of light colored moth in dark colored population is a phenotypic adaptation that impart it a survival advantage in polluted areas.
Do humans have phenotypic plasticity?
Humans have been reported to exhibit phenotypic plasticity in sperm allocation depending on variation in socio-sexual situations.