The DNA inside the nucleus is organized into chromosomes. At the most basic level, a chromosome is a molecule of DNA that is tightly coiled around proteins called histones. Eukaryotic cells have multiple chromosomes that are linear in shape.
What do eukaryotic chromosomes consist of?
Each eukaryotic chromosome is composed of DNA coiled and condensed around nuclear proteins called histones. Humans inherit one set of chromosomes from their mother and a second set from their father.
What is the role of chromosomes in eukaryotic cells?
Chromosomes are made up of a DNA-protein complex called chromatin that is organized into subunits called nucleosomes. The way in which eukaryotes compact and arrange their chromatin not only allows a large amount of DNA to fit in a small space, but it also helps regulate gene expression.
What are the tips of eukaryotic chromosomes known as?
The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes are called telomeres.
What are the three essential elements of a eukaryotic chromosome?
In order to duplicate and segregate correctly, chromosomes must contain three functional elements: (1) origins for initiation of DNA replication; (2) the centromere; and (3) the two ends, or telomeres.
What is the basic unit of chromosomes?
The subunit designation of the chromosome is chromatin. The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome. The nucleosome consists of about 200 bp wrapped around a histone octamer that contains two copies of histone proteins H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. These are known as the core histones.
What is the main function of chromosome?
The most important function of chromosomes is to carry the basic genetic material – DNA. DNA provides genetic information for various cellular functions. These functions are essential for growth, survival, and reproduction of the organisms. Histones and other proteins cover the Chromosomes.
What are the 5 steps of DNA replication?
What are the 5 steps of DNA replication in order?
- Step 1: Replication Fork Formation. Before DNA can be replicated, the double stranded molecule must be “unzipped” into two single strands.
- Step 2: Primer Binding. The leading strand is the simplest to replicate.
- Step 3: Elongation.
- Step 4: Termination.
What is the main reason why eukaryotes have linear chromosomes?
In general, the factors which led to the evolution of linear chromosomes in eukaryotes are not well understood. One potential selective pressure in favor of linear chromosomes relates to the size of an organism’s genome: linear chromosomes may make transcription and replication of large genomes easier.